The myth about how Amazon’s Web service started just won’t die

The myth about how Amazon’s Web service started just won’t die

How AWS got started and what its co-founder is doing now that he says could be bigger than cloud

There’s a rumor that goes around cloud circles about how Amazon.com created what is now the multi-billion dollar infrastructure as a service (IaaS) cloud computing industry in the early 2000s.

Some people wrongly assume that Amazon had spare, excess computing capacity from their ecommerce site that was used as the basis for Amazon Web Services’ (AWS) cloud.

It’s something that Benjamin Black has heard a lot. But it’s not true. And he would know: Black is widely credited with co-authoring the initial proposal at Amazon that led to the creation of AWS.

“Why will that not die?” Black says about the rumor. “It’s totally false.”

Black, who recently accepted a new position at cloud company Pivotal, says from day one, every part of AWS has been purpose built for AWS. And now he’s hoping to work on a new project that he says could be even bigger than the cloud he helped create at Amazon.

How AWS actually got started

Benjamin Black co-authored a paper at Amazon.com in 2003 that helped kick off Amazon Web Services and the IaaS cloud computing market. Black now works at Pivotal.

In 2003 Black was running a website engineering team at Amazon. The company was growing fast and IT wasn’t keeping up. Black worked with Chris Pinkham, who he says is one of the best managers he’s ever worked with. Pinkham pushed Black to consider how Amazon’s infrastructure could more efficiently scale up. They explored how abstraction and decoupling the applications from the infrastructure could make it easier to manage.

“We realized there could be a lot of value in doing that, and a lot of value to others potentially outside of Amazon,” Black told Network World. “We could sell it (the infrastructure) as a service.” Black and Pinkham wrote up the idea, which made its way to Jeff Bezos, who greenlighted the proposal. Pinkham then led a team to build Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which are virtual machines as a service and one of AWS’s first products released in 2006.

“Right off the bat we just thought it would be an interesting thing to do. It took a while to get to a point of realizing that this is actually transformative.”

Benjamin Black
That seed of an idea turned into what is now the market-leading IaaS public cloud computing company. Amazon was estimated last year by Gartner to have a public cloud that is five times larger than its next 14 competitors combined. Needless to say, the idea Black helped start took off. Pinkham went on to found startup Nimbula, which Oracle bought and used as the basis for its cloud platform. Pinkham now works as an engineering vice president at Twitter.

How did Bezos receive the idea? Black recalls Bezos envisioning a platform that would give anyone, such as college kids in a dorm room, the tools they would need to start a new company.

“That’s still the idea people have about it,” Black says. “At the same time, it’s taking over the world.” He says the fundamental key to AWS, which remains today, is that it provides the undifferentiated technical infrastructure to anyone who wants it – whether that’s VMs, storage, or Hadoop as a service.

Some of the directions Amazon has taken AWS have surprised Black. AWS is moving further and further “up the stack” to provide application services, like virtual desktops and email. Not everything he and Pinkham proposed made it into the initial version, but every change was for the better, he wrote in a blog post describing the origins of EC2.

Did Black realize the idea he and Pinkham proposed to Bezos would turn into what is has today? Far from it. “Right off the bat we just thought it would be an interesting thing to do,” he says. “It took a while to get to a point of realizing that this is actually transformative. It was not obvious at the beginning.”
How the Internet of Things could be the next cloud

Black has a new gig now. After stints at Microsoft, VMware, advising the company Chef and starting his own monitoring company named Boundry, cloud company Pivotal hired Black as senior director of technology. Pivotal, which is a spinout from VMware, EMC and has substantial backing from General Electric, is behind the open source platform as a service (PaaS) Cloud Foundry.

Whereas an IaaS like AWS is a massive distributed system of virtual hardware and services – like compute, storage and databases – a PaaS is an application development and hosting service.

In his new role at Pivotal Black hopes to spearhead the company’s burgeoning Internet of Things (IoT) lab in Seattle, where he lives.
INSIDER: 5 ways to prepare for Internet of Things security threats

There’s an opportunity for a company like Pivotal to create a series of application components that can be used in IoT that serve as a basis for many other IoT apps, Black says. “There are some pretty basic patterns across all of these desired apps,” he says. “What we’re looking do is develop the primitives that would allow anyone to get into the IoT marketplace.”

When asked how the IoT market could compare to the cloud computing market that he helped usher in, Black said: “Bigger.”


 

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Twelve Industries That May Not Exist By 2020

Some of these industries, such as paper and home phones, you can guess. But some will surprise you.

The following answers are provided by members of Young Entrepreneur Council (YEC), an invite-only organization comprised of the world’s most promising young entrepreneurs. In partnership with Citi, YEC recently launched StartupCollective, a free virtual mentorship program that helps millions of entrepreneurs start and grow businesses.

1. Metropolitan Taxi Systems
The dual driving force of decentralized apps (Uber, Lyft) and self-driving technologies will cause the centralized taxi industry to disintegrate. In just a few short years, Uber has already made a sizable dent in their business and will continue to do so. On the other hand, automated taxis will spread like wildfire once viable. As an NYC resident, all I have to say is good riddance, yellow cabs!

2. The USPS
Almost all of the processes that used to require a mail response are completely online now, and the USPS today is essentially one big junk mail courier for companies wanting to advertise at a 1.4 percent conversion rate on average. The only spectacular aspect of the USPS is their Media Mail rate, but if the industry was privatized, the price would be just as competitive via the nature of private industry, e.g. UPS (UPS) and Fed-Ex (FDX) .

3. The Paper Industry
The paper industry won’t ever disappear completely, but it will be almost obsolete by 2020 as everything is digitized.

4. Home Phones
I believe home telephones will be obsolete by 2020, if not sooner. Smartphones have outpaced landlines as a far more convenient and necessary form of communication. It’s already very rare to meet someone without a cell phone. We even contemplated this year switching all our office phones to cell phones. (T, VZ, S, TMUS).

5. Mobile Phones
Years ago, mobile phones became portable computers; we just insisted on thinking of them as mobile phones. The industry dedicated to making and supporting phones is already in rapid decline in the U.S. Over the next five years, that will spread globally. All data will just be data, and no distinction will be made between phone data and Internet data. Companies caught on the wrong side will be gone.

6. Credit Cards
Just like music CDs and VCRs, the plastic card that we walk around with in our wallets could very well disappear. Sooner or later, they will be replaced with mobile payments. It’s awkward each time we have to type 16 numbers into a web page, swipe an overused card repeatedly, or have to wait for the machine to spit out that receipt. Even worse, having to sign it. Smartphones will disrupt this. Bad news for MasterCard (MA), Visa (V), American Express (AXP) and Discover (DFS).

7. Movie Theaters
Sales have been declining steadily and with good reason: for the price, seeing a movie in theaters just doesn’t deliver good value. The only benefit used to be the huge screen and great sound system, but with HDTV and a small investment at home, you can create an experience that’s much superior. As more movies become available for streaming and download, movie theaters will slowly fade away.

8. Storage Media
CDs, DVDs, Blu-Ray Discs, External Hard Drives, Memory Cards, etc. With the increasing presence of cloud storage, the desire to remain connected to the digital world and the increasing presence of streaming media services, many forms of physical storage will become obsolete.

9. Retail Health Insurance Agencies
The Affordable Care Act has created marketplaces for individuals to purchase health insurance. The brokerage incentives to provide individual insurance coverage will continue to evaporate and health policies will no longer be promoted by your neighborhood insurance broker.

10. Cable TV
The Internet is changing the way we consume video. Millions have already ditched their cable subscriptions in favor of Netflix accounts. As high-speed Internet reaches more places, there will be less of a need to keep paying for your old cable service. You can already get almost everything you want on demand except live sports. When that fully switches to live streaming, it’s game over. (TWC, VZ).

11. Wallets
Mobile payment apps like LevelUp, Venmo, Google Wallet (GOOGL) and ApplePay (AAPL) make it fast, easy and convenient to pay for anything. As more retailers adopt alternative payment methods and new technologies, there will soon be no need to fish out the old leather wallet from the back pocket or pay a visit to the ATM for cash.

12. Fast Food Workers
Pay attention McDonald’s (MCD) and Burger King (BKW): in a restaurant atmosphere that’s all about low price and fast service, the workers themselves will quickly become expendable. This is because customers don’t care so much about service, but rather that they can get the right order in the same amount of time or less. With the push for higher wages, this could become reality sooner rather than later.

 


 

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7 critical things to cover in your disaster-recovery plan

As always, you never know when a disaster will strike, so better to have a checklist on hand so that panic doesn’t set in when the network goes down.

1. Creating a plan
Cloud services company Evolve IP has created a list of suggestions for executives to evaluate their current disaster avoidance plans or, should a plan not exist, provide directional measures to protect their information and communications systems.

2. Establish a disaster recovery functional team
Elect one spokesperson from the group for communication. In the event of a multi-location organization each location should have a core team or representative that works with the corporate entity.

3. Risk assessment
Identify risks in the following areas:

Information – What information and information systems are most vital to continue to run the business at an acceptable level?

Communication Infrastructure – What communications (email, toll free lines, call centers, VPNs, Terminal Services) are most vital to continue to run the business at an acceptable level?

Access and Authorization – Who needs to access the above systems and in what secure manner (VPN, SSL, DR Site) in the event of a disaster?

Physical Work Environment – What is necessary to conduct business in an emergency should the affected location not be available?

Internal and External Communication – Who do we need to contact in the event of an emergency and with what information?

4. Cloud-based data centers and applications
Create a written recovery plan that is hosted remotely in a secure and redundant data center. Schedule and test your plan at least once per year or in accordance with regulatory/compliance requirements. Ensure employees can access the hosted environment (both from within the business confines and remotely) during fail-over mode from the designated locations.

5. Premise-based data centers
Produce a written recovery plan that is stored remotely. Identify water entry areas throughout the building and have sandbags available. Install VESDA smoke detection and thermal detectors. Have a fail-safe alarm system. Place high-temperature sensors on fire sprinkler heads if non-water based fire-suppression is unavailable. Keep your data center above street level. If you are in a single-floor building, raise your racks from the floor. Employ multiple Internet service/data providers and test for failover regularly.

6. Data back-up
Tape back-ups should be removed daily and stored in a secure, easily accessed public building with at least 2-3 individuals having keys to the location. Back-up data to a geographically distant location, either electronically, or ensure physical media is in a diverse location.

7. Hosted telephony systems
Employ multiple Internet providers and test for failover regularly. Verify that critical phone numbers have the ability to call forward in an unreachable condition.

8. Call center
Identify key business applications required and how call center staff will access these applications from alternative locations. Identify critical call types that must be answered and determine mechanism to segregate those calls. Identify alternative locations to house the staff with the appropriate systems, phones, and work environment. Ensure administrative staff has the ability to remotely change call routing, messaging, and related call center functionality.


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10 alternative carriers that can save you serious cash on your smartphone bill

When it comes time to choose a wireless carrier, most Americans just go with AT&T, Sprint, or Verizon. Recently, more and more people have been tempted by T-Mobile’s cost-slashing “Uncarrier” moves, but that’s about where it ends: the four major carriers.

And that reluctance to look beyond the big guys could be costing you money.

Did you know there are a host of different carriers in the U.S. that use the same networks as the big companies but offer some serious discounts on your monthly bill? They’re called mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) and piggyback on the major carrier’s networks.

If you’ve never heard of MVNOs, you soon will. Google reportedly wants to get in on the MVNO game and offer its own cell plans using the networks of Sprint and T-Mobile, paired with Wi-Fi. Beyond MVNOs, another report says Cablevision is planning a mobile carrier service called Freewheel that will depend entirely on Wi-Fi—including free access to the company’s more than one million public hotspots.

But you don’t have to wait for Cablevision and Google to get in the cell phone service game. There are already numerous MVNOs running on networks from all four major carriers, and some that also offer Wi-Fi only plans. Many of the more interesting carriers run on Sprint, but there are also a number of options that use T-Mobile for anyone looking to use a GSM-based phone.

In no particular order, here’s a look at 10 MVNOs that are well worth a look, at least on paper. We haven’t been able to test these networks ourselves so you’ll have to judge their quality on your own.

It should also go without saying, but if you plan to bring your own device (BYOD) to an MVNO—not all allow it—the device must be compatible with that MVNO’s underlying network, be it Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon, or AT&T.

1. Ting
Carrier: Sprint
BYOD: Yes (some restrictions)
Cost: $21 per month (monthly average)
LTE: Yes

Ting is one of the more interesting choices among MVNOs. The company offers what is more or less a pay-as-you-go model. Ting categorizes usage by buckets. The first 1-100 minutes, for example, cost $3, the next bucket $9, and the next $18. There are also buckets for SMS and MB of data usage, and you must pay a monthly per-device fee of $6 each. The company’s complete rates are on its site. Ting says the average monthly cost per device is $21.

A variety of phones are available with Ting, including the iPhone 5s, Nexus 5, and Galaxy S5. If you’re thinking of moving to Ting, the company says it will pay 25 percent of the early termination fee (ETF) from your current carrier, up to $75.

2. Republic Wireless

Carrier: Sprint
BYOD: No
Cost: $5-$40 per month
LTE: Yes

Republic Wireless is one of several carriers that integrates Wi-Fi, reverting to a cellular connection only when Wi-Fi isn’t available. In fact, if you live in an urban environment and are daring enough, you can pay just $5 per month for a Wi-Fi-only plan. The bad news is that if you aren’t connected to Wi-Fi your phone won’t work. Nevertheless, this might be an ideal plan for a university student who lives on campus.

After the Wi-Fi plan, how much you pay really depends on what you need. For $40 per month you can get unlimited talk, text, and data on 4G and Wi-Fi, though the data is throttled after 5GB/mo. There’s also a $10 plan that’s talk and text on cell and Wi-Fi, plus Wi-Fi only data. Whichever plan you choose, Republic phones default to Wi-Fi whenever possible.

3. FreedomPop

Carrier: Sprint
BYOD: Yes
Cost: Free to $80 per year
LTE: Yes

Another Wi-Fi centric carrier similar to Republic, FreedomPop offers a $5 Wi-Fi-only plan. You can also get unlimited voice, text, and 500MB of data for $11 per month, or you can pay $80 up-front for an entire year of the same plan. There’s also a $20 monthly plan that offers unlimited everything over Sprint’s 4G network, but data is downgraded to 3G speeds after the first gigabyte.

4. Scratch Wireless

Carrier: Sprint
BYOD: No
Cost: $2 to $4 per day, $25 to $40 per month
LTE: Yes

Scratch Wireless takes another interesting pay-as-you-go approach like Ting. Instead of buckets, Scratch uses a “passes” concept. You can get a daily pass for $2 offering unlimited voice, and pay another $2 for unlimited data for a day. If you need a monthly pass, Scratch offers $25 for unlimited data and another $15 gets you a month of unlimited voice. Scratch does not charge for SMS, which is free under all its plans.

5. MetroPCS
Carrier: T-Mobile
BYOD: Yes
Cost: $40-$60 per month
LTE: Yes

An actual part of T-Mobile, MetroPCS offers standard prepaid packages similar to the mainstream carriers. You can still save some money, however, as MetroPCS offers unlimited talk and text along with 2GB of LTE and unlimited data at “average MetroPCS network speeds” beyond that for $40 per month. Plans with 4GB of LTE and unlimited LTE cost $50 and $60 per month, respectively.

6. Brightspot

Carrier: T-Mobile
BYOD: Yes
Cost: $30-$55 per month
LTE: Yes

Target’s MVNO Brightspot offers a number of basic plans. If you’re not a big talker, you can get a $35 plan that includes unlimited text, up to 3GB of data at 4G speeds, and 300 minutes of voice.

7. UltraMobile

Carrier: T-Mobile
BYOD: Yes
Cost: $19-$59 per month
LTE: Yes

Ultra Mobile offers a number of standard plans that can meet your needs. The company also offers some international options for those who need to call overseas (as do a number of other MVNOs, including Brightspot). For $29 Ultra Mobile offers unlimited talk and text, and 1GB of LTE data.
5phones4
Michael Homnick

8. Net10

Carrier: AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon
BYOD: Yes
Cost: $25-$80 per month
LTE: Yes

Owned by TracFone, Net10 offers connections on all four networks depending on your preferences. For $40 per month you can get unlimited talk, text, and data. The downside is Net10 only offers the first 500MB of data at LTE speeds.

9. PTel

Carrier: T-Mobile
BYOD: Yes
Cost: $20-$65 per month
LTE: Yes

A T-Mobile-based MVNO, PTel is a little bit cheaper than Net10 with $35 per month for unlimited talk, text, and data. Like Net10, PTel only offers the first 500MB at LTE speeds.

10. RingPlus

Carrier: Sprint
BYOD: Yes
Cost: $2-$33 per month
LTE: Yes

If you can get past the cutesy names of its monthly plans (such as Kate, Hazel, and Bella,) RingPlus has a wide range of offerings. The most realistic plan for serious smartphone users is Data, priced at $30 per month. This plan gets you 300 voice minutes, unlimited text, 2GB of data, and unlimited Wi-Fi calling. RingPlus charges 6 cents extra per message for MMS.
Switch and save?

Switching to an MVNO is not for everybody, especially if you live somewhere with limited cellular connectivity options. But if you’re in an area where networks like Sprint and T-Mobile offer good service you could save yourself some serious cash.


 

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98-375 HTML5 Application Development Fundamentals

QUESTION 1
You work as a senior developer at ABC.com. The ABC.com network consists of a single domain
named ABC.com.
You are running a training exercise for junior developers. You are currently discussing a CSS
property that specifies whether the object allows floating objects on its left side, right side, or both,
so that the next text displays past the floating objects.
Which of the following is the property being discussed?

A. The z-index property.
B. The vertical-align property.
C. The position property.
D. The clear property.

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION 2
You work as a developer at ABC.com. The ABC.com network consists of a single domain named
ABC.com. ABC.com makes use of HTML and CSS3 in their development process.
You have been instructed to create a new layout. You should achieve this by making use of only
one CSS3 region.
Which of the following actions should you take?

A. You should consider creating a table layout.
B. You should consider creating a grid layout.
C. You should consider creating a flex box layout.
D. You should consider creating a ListView layout.

Answer: A

Explanation:


QUESTION 3
You work as a senior developer at ABC.com. The ABC.com network consists of a single domain
named ABC.com.
You are running a training exercise for junior developers. You are currently discussing a CSS
property that introduces content into the flow.
Which of the following is the property in question?

A. The content-flow property.
B. The content-into property.
C. The flow-from property.
D. The flow-into property.

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION 4
You work as a senior developer at ABC.com. The ABC.com network consists of a single domain
named ABC.com.
You are running a training exercise for junior developers. You are currently discussing the relative
positioning scheme.
Which of the following is TRUE with regards to this positioning scheme?

A. The location of the element in the page is not calculated relative to parent or child elements, but
to the browser window.
B. It places an element in the natural HTML flow of the document, and offsets the position of the
element based on the preceding content.
C. It places an element in the natural XML flow of the document, and offsets the position of the
element based on the proceeding content.
D. It pulls the element out of the flow of the document and positions it without regard to the layout
of surrounding elements.

Answer: B

Explanation:


QUESTION 5
You work as a senior developer at ABC.com. The ABC.com network consists of a single domain
named ABC.com.
You are running a training exercise for junior developers. You are currently discussing an event
that is triggered when a user places a touch point on the touch surface.
Which of the following is the event being discussed?

A. Touchstart
B. Touchcancel
C. Touchend
D. Touchmove

Answer: A

Explanation:


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People don’t trust mobile wallets and apps

Worries over security and privacy hold back mobile phone users, survey finds

Trust is eroding among mobile device users when it comes to making purchases or app downloads.

A survey of 15,000 mobile users in 15 countries found that their trust level is degraded because they believe that payment systems aren’t secure or they don’t trust a service or online merchant. Mobile users are also worried about having to share too much personal information when downloading an app.

This lack of trust grew the most in the U.S. The lack of trust across all areas jumped from 26% in 2013 to 35% in 2014 among U.S. respondents. The latest survey was conducted in the third quarter of 2014, but was made public last week. Smartphone and feature phone users were sent an SMS to join the survey and completed the survey on their devices.

The implications of the survey could limit and possibly diminish the rollout of mobile payment and electronic wallet systems, such as Apple Pay, and the growth in app downloads, according to analysts.

Near half of the respondents said this overall lack of trust limits the the number of apps they download, while 72% said they were unhappy sharing location data or contact details.

The survey was commissioned by MEF, an international trade association focused on mobile content and commerce. MEF, based in London, includes hundreds of large companies as members, including Samsung, Microsoft, and MasterCard, with more than 35 companies from North America alone.

Andrew Bud, chairman of MEF, said the survey results should prompt companies offering mobile payments, content and services to consistently apply “high levels of transparency, security and privacy to every mobile transaction.”

The MEF launched a privacy policy initiative in 2014 to make it easy for app developers to integrate a line of code within an app that offers customers a short explanation of privacy in plain English. Details are on the MEF website at appprivacy.net.

One of the most dramatic findings in the survey shows that 72% of respondents said they were unhappy sharing personal information when using an app, an increase from 65% in 2013. In the U.S., the 2014 number was 79% who said they were not comfortable sharing personal information. And 69% said they had the right to own any data collected through their smart devices.

“These figures have significant consequences for those looking to develop the Internet of Things which seeks to connect billions of devices to the Internet and to each other,” the survey report said.

Because of a lack of trust over security, 36% in the overall survey said they hadn’t tried out a mobile wallet on a smartphone. Meanwhile, only 15% said they had already used a mobile wallet or were thinking of doing so. Mobile users are concerned their personal information might be used without their consent, including 22% who are concerned their financial data might be stolen.


 

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74-338 Lync 2013 Depth Support Engineer


QUESTION 1
You work for a company named ABC.com. Your role of Lync Administrator includes the
management of the Microsoft Lync Server 2013 infrastructure.
Two Windows Server 2012 servers named ABC-DB01 and ABC-DB02 run SQL Server 2012.
ABC-DB01 and ABC-DB02 host a mirrored database for the Lync Server Central Management
Store (CMS). ABC-DB01 currently has the principle database and ABC-DB02 currently has the
mirror database. The mirrored database does not use a witness instance.
You need to manually failover the mirrored database to enable you to perform maintenance on
ABC-DB01.
Which of the following Windows PowerShell cmdlets should you run?

A. Invoke-CsPooIFailover
B. Invoke-CsManagementStoreReplication
C. Invoke-CsBackupServiceSync
D. Invoke-CSManagementServerFailover

Answer: D

Explanation:


QUESTION 2
You work for a company named ABC.com. The company has a Microsoft Lync Server 2013
infrastructure that includes two Lync Server pools. Your role of Lync Administrator includes the
management of the Microsoft Lync Server 2013 infrastructure.
An Edge server named ABC-Edge1 is configured to use a pool named ABC-LyncPool1.ABC.com
as its next hop. You plan to failover to a second pool named ABC-LyncPool2.ABC.com. Before
failing over the pool, you need to reconfigure the next hop for ABC-Edge1 to be ABCLyncPool2.
ABC.com.
Which of the following Windows PowerShell cmdlets should you run?

A. Set-CsEdgeServer
B. Set- CsAVEdgeConfiguration
C. New-CsEdgeAllowList
D. Set-CsAccessEdgeConfiguration
E. Move-CsApplicationEndpoint

Answer: A

Explanation:


QUESTION 3
You work for a company named ABC.com. The company has two Active Directory sites in a
single Active Directory Domain Services domain named ABC.com. Your role of Lync
Administrator includes the management of the Microsoft Lync Server 2013 infrastructure.
The Lync infrastructure consists of a single pool named ABC-LyncPool1.ABC.com.
You have been asked to design a disaster recovery (DR) plan in the event of a failure of ABCLyncPool1.
ABC.com. Part of the DR plan would be to configure a backup pool.
Which three of the following Windows PowerShell cmdlets would you need to run to recover the
CMS (Central Management Store) and the Lync user accounts? (Choose three)

A. Set-CsManagementServer
B. Install-CsDatabase
C. Set-CsLocationPolicy
D. Move-CsManagementServer
E. Invoke-CSManagementServerFailover
F. Invoke-CsPoolFailover

Answer: B,D,F

Explanation:


QUESTION 4
You work for a company named ABC.com. The company has a single Active Directory Domain
Services domain named ABC.com. The company has a datacenter located in New York.
The New York datacenter hosts two Microsoft Lync Server 2013 pools named ABCLyncPool1.
ABC.com and ABC-LyncPool2.ABC.com. ABC-LyncPool1.ABC.com hosts the CMS
(Central Management Store). All of the company’s 70,000 users are enabled for Lync. Your role
of Lync Administrator includes the management of the Microsoft Lync Server 2013 infrastructure.
The servers in ABC-LyncPool1.ABC.com suffer irreparable hardware failure. You need to recover
the Lync environment by failing over ABC-LyncPool1.ABC.com. All users will be hosted
permanently on ABC-LyncPool2.ABC.com.
Which of the following Windows PowerShell cmdlets should you run? (Choose all that apply)

A. Invoke-CSManagementServerFailover
B. Invoke-CsPoolFailover
C. Invoke-CsManagementStoreReplication
D. Invoke-CsPoolFailover
E. Move-CsManagementServer
F. Install-CsDatabase

Answer: D,E,F

Explanation:


QUESTION 5
You work for a company named ABC.com. Your role of Lync Administrator includes the
management of the Microsoft Lync Server 2013 infrastructure.
You receive reports from users that they are sometimes unable to make outbound calls. You
discover that the failures are caused by there being no available trunks.
To help troubleshoot the issue, you plan to run performance monitor counters to monitor the total
number of calls and the total number of inbound calls to determine trunk usage.
Against which server should you run the performance monitor counters?

A. Edge Server
B. Front End Server
C. Database Server
D. Mediation Server

Answer: D

Explanation:


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Windows 10: Inside Microsoft’s latest Technical Preview

The latest version, Build 9926, does not include some of the things that Microsoft showed off on Jan. 21, including deep integration of Skype into the OS, and the new Spartan web browser. But there are many important features in this build.

Technical Preview
On Jan. 21, Microsoft revealed many of the major features coming to Windows 10. Two days later, Microsoft released an updated Windows 10 Technical Preview. The Technical Previews have been made available to the public, but are meant only for testing purposes, and will not completely reflect what Windows 10 will be like in its final form. The latest version, Build 9926, does not include some of the things that Microsoft showed off on the 21st, including deep integration of Skype into the OS, and the new Spartan web browser. But there are many important features in this build. Here’s a closer look.

Search Box
A search box now appears on the taskbar to the right of the Start Menu icon, which you can use to find files or programs stored on your computer/device or information on the web (via Bing). You can remove this box from the taskbar, or turn the search box into a shortcut icon of a circle. This search box is the interface through which you will interact with Microsoft’s personal digital assistant.

Cortana comes to Windows 10
The biggest new feature is Cortana. Microsoft plans to fully bake its personal digital assistant, which first appeared in Windows Phone 8.1, into the official release of Windows 10. During this testing phase, Cortana is not fully baked, and that’s to be expected.

Setting up Cortana
Cortana resides inside the search box. You set it up by typing in your name or whatever you would like her to call you by.

Activating Cortana
You can set Cortana to activate whenever you say aloud to your computer’s or device’s mic “Hey Cortana.” Doing this means Windows has to continually keep the mic on.

Cortana speaks
From there, you can ask Cortana to look up something, such as: “Hey Cortana, what is the current temperature?” A weather forecast will sprout from the search box, and a female voice (Cortana) will tell you the current temperature in your local area. She can also be asked to perform and answer basic calculations: “Hey Cortana, what is 6 times 7?”

Personal assistance
Inside the search box are three tools that let you add or remove what kind of information Cortana presents to you throughout your day: Notebook includes events from your personal calendar, local news, and traffic conditions. Reminders are notifications you set for Cortana to alert you about something on a specified day and/or time, or when you arrive at a location in the real world. With Places, you add location addresses that Cortana can reference regarding your personal travel activity.

Interface issues
In prior builds of the Technical Preview, the restored Start Menu interface looked similar to the one in Windows 7, but with the Windows 8/8.1 Start Screen sized down into a panel stuck to its right. This sounds clunky, but the overall result was actually manageable.Now, Build 9926 presents an interface where both halves of the Star Menu share a uniform look; it further blurs the distinction between which are your Windows desktop applications (which by default are listed in the left panel) and which are your Windows Store apps (by default on the right).

Resizing the Start Menu
In the older Technical Previews, you could resize the Start Menu by clicking-and-dragging on its top border. For some reason, Microsoft took away this feature, but added a full-screen mode, which is turned on by clicking the icon on the upper-right corner of the Start Menu. In full-screen, it doesn’t look completely like the infamous Windows 8/8.1 Start Screen, though — the left panel listing your desktop applications and Windows Store apps still remains. If you switch on “Tablet mode,” the Start menu will expand to fill the screen when you click/tap the Start Menu icon. Tablet mode also locks out the user from accessing the desktop.

Switching off a live tile
Another thing that the Windows 10 developers removed from the Start Menu was the ability to switch a live tile off. Windows Store apps can be designed to show updated information, like your local weather, on their tile. Turning off such live-updating has been available since the original Windows 8 release, as a means to save bandwidth when necessary, so it’s disconcerting to see this option eliminated from Build 9926. Hopefully, its absence is temporary due to testing purposes, and will return in future builds.

Design changes
Besides the more unified look of the Start Menu, there’s not much new to see when it comes to eye candy. Some design changes for the system and user folder icons are seen under File Explorer. I think they look amateurish with a garish color palette, but maybe these won’t be the final versions.

Action Center
The Action Center in the last Technical Preview build simply showed system status updates. In Build 9926, it now also includes shortcut icons to eight system settings.

Control Panel
Windows 10 could merge the PC Settings of Windows 8/8.1 and classic Control Panel into one. Build 9926 presents the first take at this. The Control Panel is still available, but some of its settings have been moved over to this new UI (including Windows Update). Clicking the System icon here…

Settings Menu
…takes you to a new version of the Windows 8/8.1 PC Settings menu.

Updated apps
And lastly, most of the Windows Store apps that come preinstalled on Windows 8/8.1 have been updated in Build 9926: Alarms, Calculator, Camera, Maps, OneNote, Pictures and Sound Recorder are among these. There’s also a second version of the Windows Store, marked as a beta, which features a layout that’s been designed to supposedly work better for desktop PC and notebook users of Windows 10.


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Windows 10 revealed: Microsoft’s next OS fuses Windows 7 and 8

At a press event on Tuesday, Microsoft launched the next version of Windows: Not Windows One, not Windows 9, but Windows 10, which combines the reborn Start menu with Windows 8’s colorful live tiles and adjusts its behavior depending on how you’re using your device.

Windows 10 will officially launch in the middle of next year, but you’ll have a chance to try it out before that via a new Windows Insider program, launching Wednesday. The platform’s most vocal fans will have a chance to download the technical preview before it launches next year.

Microsoft executives unveiled the new OS at a small press event in San Francisco, where the company tried to position the Windows 10 OS as a “natural step forward” for both Windows and Windows Phone, which will also be renamed Windows 10.

Windows 10 will be designed for the enterprise, Terry Myerson executive vice president of Microsoft’s OS group, said. It will have a “familiar” interface, whether it be for Windows 7 or Windows 8. “They will find all the tools they’re used to finding, with all the apps and tools they’re used to today,” he said.

Windows 10 will be compatible with all the familiar management systems, including mobile device management. MDM tools will manage not just mobile devices, but PCs, phones, tablets, and even embedded devices inpart of the Internet of Things, Myerson said. Enterprise customers will be able to manage their own app stores, so that ther employees get the right apps for them. As Windows 8 did, data security will be a priority, he said.

Windows 10’s ‘Task View’ includes multiple desktops, a feature long desired by power users.
Joe Belfiore, who runs part of the OS team focused on the PC experience, showed off the new OS, which he called a “very early build.” Yes, the new build has the Stat menu, combining the icon-driven menu from Windows 7, plus the added Live Tiles to the right.

Belfiore used the analogy of a Tesla to describe how Windows 7 users would feel when they upgraded—something that Microsoft desperately wants them to do: a supercharged OS, but one that will feel familiar.

One of the things that Microsoft wants to ensure is that Windows 10 is personalized results, including search results, Belfiore said.

Windows 8 had a universal app platform, with a common Windows Store that handle updates independently. Belfiore said that Microsoft wanted all those Windows 7 uses to get all the benefits of Windows 8 apps. Apps will be shown in the Live Tiles, with no real indication whether they are “classic” apps or modern, Windows 8 apps. Apps can be “snapped,” like Windows 8. Users will also not have to leave the Windows desktop to use modern apps, as expected.

Multitasking will also be a priority, with a stated goal being able to “empower” novice users, Belfiore said. On the taskbar there will be a “task view” where users can switch back and forth between different environments—whether it be 32-bit Windows 7 apps or modern apps. And yes, they will include virtual desktops, with the ability to switch back and forth between virtual environments. A “snap assist” feature will allow users to select similar windows to snap alongside other apps. And up to four apps or windows can be snapped to the four corners of the desktop, Belfiore said.

Even more advanced uses will be able to take advantage of new keyboard shortcuts, with the ability to ALT-TAB between desktops. “It’s a nice forward enhancement to make those people more productive,” Belfiore said.

Microsoft even improved the command line interface, with an improved keyboard interface. (You can use Crtl+V to paste now!)
Touch when you need it

Belfiore wrapped up by talking about touch: “We’re not giving up on touch,” he said. But he did say that that massive numbers of users were familiar with the touchless Windows 7 interface, while supporting those who have jumped to Windows 8.

So that means that the Charms experience will be revamped. When you swipe right on Windows 10, the Charms bar is still there. But Belfiore said that the Charms experience would change. When people swipe in from the left, Windows 10, you’ll get a task view. “I’m using touch in a way that accelerates my use of a PC,” Belfiore said.

Microsoft is also working on a revamped UI that isn’t is in Windows 10, yet. For two-in-on devices, a “Continuum” mode will adjust the UI depending on whether or not the mouse and keyboard is present. When a keyboard is disconnected, the Windows 8-style Start menu appears and a back button is available so that users can easily back out to a prior command. Menus grow larger. Bu when a mouse and keyboard is connected, the desktop mode reappears, Windows apps return to desktop windows, and the Start page disappears.

Now, Microsoft needs to take the next step: pitching enterprise customers, Myerson said. And that’s critical for Windows’ future, analysts said. Expect more details on the consumer flavors of Windows 10 early next year, more application details at BUILD, and then a launch of Windows 10 near the middle of next year.

“For businesses, I think there are some businesses who have picked it up and they are really early adopters, but in general, the sense—when we engage with customers, we’re not hearing a lot of reception out there,” Wes Miller, an analyst with Directions on Microsoft, said in advance of the briefing. “We’re hearing a lot of businesses even before whatever that thing comes out tomorrow, before that came out, businesses were saying, we’re going to hang out on Windows 7, it’s stable, it does what we need to do.”

Starting Wednesday, Microsoft will launch a Windows Insider program, distributing the technical preview of Windows 10, Myerson said. Through Window Insiders we’re inviting our more vocal Windows fans” to help refine the Windows experience, executives said. Users wil be able to sign up at preview.windows.com, he said, where they will be able to hold private discussions with Windows engineers and give feedback.

“Windows 10 will be our most open, collaborative OS project ever,” Myerson said.


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Oracle is quietly becoming a cloud giant

Oracle is quietly becoming a cloud giant

Its cloud business is now half the size of Salesforce, and the gap is closing quickly.

One of the drawbacks to the Christmas season is that good stories slip by and no one covers them until much later, if at all. Such was the case with Oracle’s third quarter earnings, released on December 17. By that point, not many people were paying attention (tip of the hat to Forbes for first noticing it) to anything except shopping lists, but what Oracle had to say was significant.

Oracle is pulling off a minor miracle. It is adapting to and adopting a whole new technology and business model that should, in theory, be completely contrary and contradictory to its current model. One of the subtheories of Geoffrey Moore’s business bible, Crossing the Chasm, is that companies established in one old industry are often unable to change with the times when their market shifts. As a result, they are often left behind or forced to go through a painful reinvention.

On paper, that should be the case for Oracle. It’s firmly wedded to on-premises software, has a decidedly 1980s-90s business model of licenses rather than subscriptions, and its leader is 70 years old in an insanely ageist industry where no one over 30 can get venture money.

Yet the company is adapting and picking up customers fast. Look at the stats disclosed by Larry Ellison and co-CEOs Mark Hurd and Safra Catz during their earnings call with financial analysts.
Total cloud revenue reached $590 million for the quarter, a 47% increase from the second quarter of last year.
Cloud SaaS and PaaS revenue of $364 million, up 41% from last year and more than double last year’s growth.
Cloud infrastructure as a service revenue of $155 million, up 62%, although that’s due in part to the prior year being comparatively low.
860 new SaaS customers, 230 of which subscribe to more than one set of apps.
Nearly 650 existing customers expanded their cloud services in the quarter.
More than 460 new SaaS customers in Oracle’s Customer Experience (CX) business.
250 new SaaS customers in its ERP and Enterprise Performance Management (EPM) business.
230 new customers in Human Capital Management (HCM).
Oracle’s Fusion products saw triple-digit growth in both revenue and bookings.
150 new customers in Oracle’s four-month-old platform as a service (PaaS) business.

And in a true sign of hell freezing over, the hardware business is growing. It rose 4% year-over-year, with hardware revenue of $717 million and hardware support revenue of $690 million. Much of that came from Exalogic and Big Data appliances. For years, it looked like the old Sun business was going to wither and die on the vine, but it’s coming back, too.

Oracle’s cloud business is now worth $2 billion at an annualized rate, about half of Salesforce.com’s annual income last year. Larry couldn’t help but point this out.

“What makes this particularly interesting is that next year Oracle will sell about the same total dollar amount of new SaaS and PaaS business as cloud market leader salesforce.com,” Ellison said in the earnings call. “Stay tuned, it’s going to be close. We are catching up to them and we are catching up very quickly.”

Considering Salesforce reported $2.2 billion in revenue in 2012, $3 billion in 2013, and $4 billion in 2014, it will likely come close to $5 billion this year. However, unlike Oracle, Salesforce is also bleeding money. It has reported significant and growing losses for the last three years. Oracle is very profitable.

Oracle’s success story comes down to integration. Its software library is massive from all of its acquisitions. The Oracle database is just a fraction of the story at this point. With all of its integrated applications, from PeopleSoft to the Fusion line, Oracle simply transitioned those apps to the cloud and provided people with a complete, integrated suite. And with the Sun hardware, customers can buy a turnkey solution all in one nice package.

“It’s happened in every generation of computing where the end user, the customer, doesn’t want to be the integrator of 30 separate applications from 30 separate vendors. No different now, just on the cloud now,” Ellison said.

There’s much more to it, all detailed nicely in that Forbes story. The bottom line is Oracle is in the process of a reinvention on a scale that rarely happens in this business.


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